universe -- cosmology -- gravitation -- red shift of spectral lines -- Hubble law -- quasar -- galaxy -- angular brightness relation -- angular red shift relation -- number brightness relation -- number red shift relation -- look back time -- space expansion -- light spreading in the universe -- absolute and apparent magnitude of cosmic objects -- age of universe -- big bang .....

Welcome to "Needy Cosmology" !

Homepage from Steffen Haase, Germany, Leipzig


Recently I found the following anecdote in the literature. I will mention it here, since it describes the slogan of my homepage quite well:

The important bacteriologist and Nobel award owner Emil Adolph of Behring has got a new assistant, who should operate in its institute. He frightened the young man with the following words: " If you want to carry out somewhat useful here, then forget everything you learned so far. That is all nonsense. You even can throw most of the technical literature away. That is also mainly nonsense. If you however want to proceed fast, then continue nonsense - however not with me."
[ source: Large anecdotes dictionary, published by D. Kunschmann, Bassermann publishing house, 1999 ]

  1. At present the series of articles presented here consists of five essays. A further essay is in preparation.
  2. The derivations in the essays are described in detail such that a graduate in mathematics and physics should be able to understand it.
  3. I would be glad, if every reader who is interested in cosmological questions is able to study all of the essays. It will be not easy to get used to the new ideas, but the new findings about this interesting field of natural sciences are hopefully worth the trouble.
  4. If you have the impression that there are some discrepancies in the first article then please be sure to read the detailed derivation of the Hubble law.
  5. I would be very pleased about serious-meant comments. Do not hesitate to contact me by email.

The principal purpose of each physical theory is to describe the measurement results of experimental or observing physics in the best way possible. In the area of cosmology however the appropriate so-called standard theory cannot explain the following observation results:

  1. average locations of the quasars in the Hubble diagram
  2. the apparently extreme absolute brightness of quasars
  3. a limitation in the Hubble diagram regarding the red shift
  4. a limitation in the Hubble diagram concerning the apparent brightness
  5. less cosmic objects for large red shifts than expected by the standard theory
  6. a minimum for the linear size of extragalactic objects for the red shift z = 1.25 is not found
On this homepage I present corrections for the cosmology discussed at the time, that give a simple and plausible response to the unresolved questions mentioned.
Particularly the Hubble law is again derived in another way and the result is compared with the measurements (1st essay). Based on this new access to the Hubble law the number-red shift relation (2nd essay) and the angular-red shift relation (3rd essay) are derived. Both relations likewise deviate from today's text book cosmology.
In the last two essays some interesting supplements and further conclusions are given.

I am convinced that the proposed theoretical derivations are more correct than those of the standard cosmology, since the derived equations correspond better to the observations of astrophysics. Now I would like to invite you to convince yourself of it.

You can read the first article here: About several problems of modern cosmology - I. About the interpretation of the Hubble diagram

For a quick overview see equation (18), compare equation (20) with (xxx) and have a look on fig. 3.

Here you can find the evaluation of present data.


  1. Please print fig. 1 of the additions to the first part of the essay. Hereby you can better understand the derivation of the Hubble law.
    You can download this useful picture (Word2000 document) as ZIP file here.
  2. Perhaps the referees did not understand my derivation of the Hubble law (see the negative reply). This is why you can again study the derivation of the Hubble law in more detail here.

You can find additions to the first part here.

The attentive reader will now correctly assume that the absolute brightness of the normal galaxies more or less developed during the expansion of the universe, while the quasars were obviously not subject to a larger development of the brightness over the time. - This is in contradiction to the present theoretical views about quasars in the literature; however the supposed problem of the radiation power of the quasars which is assumed to be utopian high is solved in a very simple way.
The coordinates of the normal galaxies in the Hubble diagram (for large red shifts) point at a development of the galaxies from smaller to larger absolute brightness.

You can download the first article as ZIP file (PDF document) here.
You can read the second article here: About several problems of modern cosmology - II. About the number of cosmic systems in the universe

For a quick overview compare equation (2) with (yyy) and see fig. 4.

Here you can find the evaluation of present data.

You can find additions to the second part here.

Nothing at this time.

You can download the second article as ZIP file (PDF document) here.
You can read the third article here: About several problems of modern cosmology - III. About the mean size of cosmic objects

For a quick overview compare equation (2) with (zzz) and see fig. 3.

Altogether we obviously can conclude that in former times the normal galaxies were on the average smaller and less absolutely bright.

You can download the third article as ZIP file (PDF document) here.
You can read the fourth article here: About several problems of modern cosmology - IV. Additions

For a quick overview it should be enough to read the first paragraph!

You can find additions to the fourth part here.

Now the reader will probably have the impression that wrong equations are used in the literature for the astrophysical topics considered since around 75 years.

You can read the fifth article here: About several problems of modern cosmology - V. About the red shift in the spectrum of cosmic objects

For a quick overview see equation (19), read the short chapters 4 and 5 and have a look on fig. 1.

Note: I think that the proposed theoretical approaches which are concerned with the reasons for the cosmological red shift speak for themselves.

One of the original objectives of thinking about the cosmological questions treated in the presented essays was to finally banish the extremely speculative and probably scientifically unreasonable Big Bang (with all its curious consequences) from the physical theory of cosmology.
Unfortunately I must confess that this project was not successful. The cosmology still does not get along without the concept of the general expansion of the universe. This is however bly restricted because of the finiteness of the speed of light.
From my point of view there are interesting corrections on today's generally accepted concepts of the development of the universe over the time. In particular I again would like to point out that the already for decades proven limitation of all velocities to the velocity of light prevents that the universe was infinitely dense, small and hot in former times. Therefore, to avoid the Big Bang which is so popular in the literature, the consulting of a quantum theory of gravitation is not necessary. All natural scientists working in this area of the science should think about this more and more. It is a pleasure to continue to give my attention to this task. .....

You may read here why the big bang was never in existence.

About my experiences with journals:
The series of articles published here was not accepted for publication by well known astrophysical journals. - If you like to read the answers of the journals which I asked to publish my articles, then click here .

Get in touch:
If you have questions, suggestions, comments and other remarks please send me an email .

Words of thanks:
I like to thank the creators of the internet! Without the invention of the internet an easy and effective publication of the theoretical approach about cosmology which differs from the so called standard literature about cosmology would be not possible.

The here published text is under the control of the German and international copyright, i.e. publications, translations, transfers to other media etc. - also in parts - is only permitted with prior permission of the author.
The rights of parts of some figures belong to the publishing houses of the references given.

Copyright by Steffen Haase, Greifswald (1998) and Leipzig (1999)

last update: 02/09/2004
last correction of spelling mistakes: 01/17/2007